By Kathleen Maclay, UC Berkeley News
Drawn to news of protests across the country over the deaths of Black men and boys pursued or detained by police, the director of the UC Berkeley’s History-Social Science Project (HSSP) pondered how to help young people make sense of the associated conflict, confusion, fear and anger.
As she did, Rachel Reinhard said some of the defining moments in the United States’ long and arduous civil rights struggle came to mind, including:
The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1857 rejection of the claim to citizenship filed by Dred Scott, an enslaved man taken to free territory, a ruling that actually helped fuel abolitionist sentiment and contributed to the Civil War;
Investigative reporter and civil rights leader Ida B. Wells’ documentation of white lynchings of Blacks in the 1890s;
Striking Black sanitation workers in Memphis in the 1960s marching proudly with “I am a Man” placards
“We felt like it was up to us to determine how we contribute to the latest conversation, and how to help teachers make sense of the moment,” Reinhard said recently in explaining the evolution of this year’s HSSP Summer Institute for K-12 teachers and its theme, “Struggles for Justice: Then and Now.”
Reinhard noted that incorporating the histories often absent from the traditional, “grand narratives” can arm students with the skills and knowledge needed to make sense of their world, especially one fraught with long-festering issues such as African American history, LGBT rights and immigration reform.
“While the study of history cannot solve everything, through deliberate instruction, I hope we can work to foster greater context, analysis and empathy for the human condition among our students and, consequently, in our world,” she wrote in a post on the HSSP website.
Jenna Rentz, who taught history and government/economics at Mt. Diablo and Ygnacio Valley high schools in Concord, asked to prepare the institute’s housing discrimination lesson plan after hearing an inspirational talk at her local church by Richard Rothstein of UC Berkeley’s School of Law, linking public policy to segregation in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere.
“One of Dr. Rothstein’s statements really struck me,” said Renz. “He noted that in The Americans, the most common U.S. history textbook and one I used myself in my classroom, there is only one sentence about housing segregation: ‘African Americans found themselves in segregated neighborhoods.’”
Renz, who is on a break from teaching while studying for her master’s degree in history at San Francisco State University, said she realized she had never covered housing segregation while she was teaching, and wanted to create a lesson that provides more context and more accurately reflects government involvement in purposeful segregation of neighborhoods.
Her lesson is divided in four parts:
One gives a history of zoning, restrictive covenants and the Federal Housing Administration’s “redlining” of African American communities that led to African Americans being denied mortgages for decades and reflecting government systems and processes that supported segregation.
The second has primary-source accounts of those who experienced residential segregation, including a story from Giants slugger and Baseball Hall of Famer Willie Mays, who was initially denied the ability to buy a house in San Francisco because of his race.
Part 3 covers the 1968 Fair Housing Act and its limitations
Part 4 explores the lasting effects of residential segregation for African American communities, including a connection to the recent protests around policing in predominantly black neighborhoods.
Nearly two dozen teachers as nearby as Oakland, Piedmont and Pittsburg and as far away as Fresno and Trinity County are convening on campus for the institute July 13-July 17, hearing from experts and learning how to infuse their lesson plans with more historical context.
The increased attention in recent years on improving student test scores has too often minimized the time allotted to teaching social studies and history, said Reinhard.
Teachers attending the institute will learn how to:
Use model lesson plans from the institute to build historical context into their classroom presentations, teasing out information that aligns with state-mandated curriculum around California, U.S. and world history across all grades;
Integrate rich, primary online sources such as the Library of Congress into their lessons;
Develop students’ historical thinking skills.
Leading key discussion on African American history will be Waldo Martin, UC Berkeley’s Alexander F. and May T. Morrison Professor of American History and Citizenship and the author of such books as The Mind of Frederick Douglass and Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party.